Jan 13, 2024 By Triston Martin

Whenever a sequence of **cash flows** in the future is discounted at a rate other than zero, that rate is known as the internal rate of return. Selecting investments with the highest expected returns requires the usage of the IRR and net present value.

The predicted **interest yield** as a percentage is the IRR, whereas the net present value is the major difference between the two. When choosing **investments**, financiers choose projects with an internal rate of return higher than the cost of capital.

However, the possibility of generating a return on investment larger than the weighted average costs of capital but less than the current return on existing assets increases if projects are selected based on maximizing the IRR rather than the NPV.

Only when the project generates no intermediate cash flows, or if the capital can be reinvested at the current IRR, does IRR represent the true yearly return on investment? Therefore, optimizing NPV is not the objective.

The formula for determining the net present value is to take the present value of cash inflows and subtract it from the present value of cash outflows. Any project's net present value may be calculated by adjusting the discount rate. The choice of the discount rate, which is typically dependent on a degree of uncertainty, will thus have a major influence when evaluating two investment prospects.

Using a discount rate of 20%, the example below demonstrates that Investment #2 is the more profitable option. At the more conservative discount rate of 1%, investment #1 again outperforms investment #2. The cash flows of a project, their relative importance, and the discount rate used all influence how profitable the project will be.

The IRR is the discount rate at which the NPV of an investment may be reduced to zero. It's more engaging to compare the profitability of various investments using this criterion when the IRR has only one value.

The IRR on Investment #2 is 80%, whereas that on Investment #1 is 48%. As a result, under the first investment scenario, a 2013 investment of $2,000 will provide a yearly return of 48%. In the second investing scenario, if you put away $1,000 in 2013 and collect the income, you'll earn 80% yearly.

Without any input, Excel will begin trying out various IRR values for the entered series of cash flows, stopping when a rate is chosen that results in an NPV of zero. When Excel cannot discover a discount rate that brings the NPV down to zero, the error "#NUM" is shown. Without the second option, Excel will only show the first rate it finds that gets the NPV to zero; thus, we won't know whether the investment has several IRR values.

The cash flows in the next example are not distributed annually at the same time as in the preceding cases. It's more accurate to say that they're occurring at separate times. To finish this math, we will use the XIRR function.

First, we decide on a range of cash flows, and then we decide on a range of realization dates. Though more common, Excel lacks tools that may be used to account for investments that have cash flows received or cashed at different times for a company that has variable borrowing rates and reinvestments. 2

The $85 million we assumed for Year 0 equity investment is set in stone. The initial investment will be worth the same amount in whichever year the company chooses to cash out. A negative indicator will be used since money is being spent on the investment. The exit cash inflows, meanwhile, are the buyer's share of the sale price.

Specifically, from the original $85 million invested, the exit revenues are expected to grow by $25 million annually. Therefore, in Year 1, the exit proceeds are $110m, and in Year 3, they are $160m. To determine the IRR and MoM for this investment, we first need to create a table showing the cash outflow in Year 0 and the cash inflows at various periods over the holding period.

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